Research and development performed in the United States totaled $456.1 billion in 2013. This is compared to $435.3 billion in 2012 (revised downward from an earlier estimate) and $427.8 billion in 2011. In 2008—just before the onset of the main economic effects of the national and international financial crisis and the Great Recession—U.S. R&D totaled $407.0 billion. Data are from the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation.